Make An Ultrasonic Radar or USDAR

Make An Ultrasonic Ultrasonic Detection And Ranging Device at Home


Today,I am going to guide you to Make A Ultrasonic Radar  or USDAR ( Ultrasonic Detection And Ranging)at Home using an Ultrasonic Sensor(Transceiver),Arduino Board and a servo motor.You can call it Small and short range radar system because it works/detects obstacle in between 2cm  to 450cm distance.With the help of Coding and Processing Software we can see the data on a graph on the computer screen.

How does Ultrasonic transceiver works:- 


Ultrasonic transducers are transducers that convert ultrasound waves to electrical signals or vice versa. Those that both transmit and receive may also be called ultrasound transceivers; many ultrasound sensors besides being sensors are indeed transceivers because they can both sense and transmit. These devices work on a principle similar to that of transducers used in radar and sonar systems, which evaluate attributes of a target by interpreting the echoes from radio or sound waves, respectively. Active ultrasonic sensors generate high-frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor, measuring the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object.

Video Link

Youtube Link-Make An Ultrasonic Radar


Requirements To Make An Ultrasonic Radar at Home:-


This is the list of parts needed to Make An Ultrasonic Radar at Home.
.

  • 1 x Arduino UNO board
  • 1 x HC-05 Ultrasonic sensor
  • 9g Micro Servo SG90
  • 1 x Breadboard/Mini Breadboard
  • Some male to male and female to female jumper wires.
  • Desktop or lappy with Arduino IDE and Processing Software installed in it with some basic information about how to use it.Tool -GLU Gun 

Basic Information About Parts and links to Buy –

Arduino UNO board

The Arduino Uno is a micro controller board based on the ATmega328. It contains everything needed to support the micro controller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs ,a 16 MHz ceramic resonator ,a USB connection ,a power jack ,an ICSP header and a reset button.

It contains everything needed to support the micro controller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.
Micro-controller ATmega328 Operating Voltage 5V Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
Analog Input Pins 6
DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA
Flash Memory 32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328)
EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328)
Clock Speed 16 MHz

Buy Arduino Board from here-

Arduino Uno R3 ATmega328P ATMEGA16U2 Compatible with USB Cable

HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor

The HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor uses sonar to measure distance to an object. It offers excellent range accuracy and stable readings in an easy-to-use package. It operation is not affected by sunlight or black material like Sharp rangefinders are (soft materials like cloth can be difficult to detect). Module main technical parameters: 1.Working Voltage : 5V(DC) 2.Static current: Less than 2mA. 3.Output signal: Electric frequency signal, high level 5V, low level 0V. 4.Sensor angle: Not more than 15 degrees. 5.Detection distance: 2cm-450cm. 6.High precision: Up to 0.3cm 7.Input trigger signal: 10us TTL impulse 8.Echo signal : output TTL PWL signal Mode of connection: 1.VCC 2.trig(T) 3.echo(R) 4.GND The basic operation principle is below : use IO port TRIG to trigger ranging. It needs 10 us high level signal at least Module will send eight 40kHz square wave automatically, and will test if there is any signal returned. If there is signal returned, output will be high level signal via IO port ECHO. The duration of the high level signal is the time from transmitter to receiving with the ultrasonic. Testing distance = duration of high level*sound velocity(340m/s) / 2 You can use the above calculation to find the distance between the obstacle and the ultrasonic module.NOTE : The module has a blind spot of 2cm(very near). So obstacle held too closely will not be detected.

  HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Module Distance Measuring Transducer Sensor DC 5V

TowerPro SG 90 Micro Servo:-

Buy the TowerPro SG 90 Micro Servo from Here

Make An Ultrasonic Radar at Home:-

  1. Place The Servo on a plane surface (i Placed on the Mini Breadboard).
  2. Fix it with Glu Gun.
  3. Now Fix the Ultrasonic Sensor/Ultrasonic transceivers on the top as shown in the picture above.Using Glu Gun.

Now Make connection As Below.

Circuit Diagram of Ultrasonic Radar:-

Circuit Assembly of Ultrasonic Radar:-

Ultrasonic – Arduino

VCC         – VCC (5v)
Trig          – D10
Echo        – D11
GND        – GND

Servo      – Arduino

Brown    – GND
Red        – VCC(5v)
Orange  – D12

Coding:-

#include <Servo.h>. 

const int trigPin = 10;

const int echoPin = 11;

long duration;

int distance;

Servo myServo; 

void setup() {

  pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT); 

  pinMode(echoPin, INPUT); 

  Serial.begin(9600);

  myServo.attach(12); 

}

void loop() {

  for(int i=15;i<=165;i++){  

  myServo.write(i);

  delay(30);

  distance = calculateDistance();

  

  Serial.print(i); 

  Serial.print(“,”); 

  Serial.print(distance); 

  Serial.print(“.”); 

  }

  

  for(int i=165;i>15;i–){  

  myServo.write(i);

  delay(30);

  distance = calculateDistance();

  Serial.print(i);

  Serial.print(“,”);

  Serial.print(distance);

  Serial.print(“.”);

  }

}

int calculateDistance(){ 

  

  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW); 

  delayMicroseconds(2);

  digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH); 

  delayMicroseconds(10);

  digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

  duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH); 

  distance= duration*0.034/2;

  return distance;

}

Attachment:-

Download the Zip File From Below link Which is a zip file with .ino file, Processing.pde file and Circuit diagram.

  Ultrasonic Radar by SKYuvraj.zip

Steps to observe the Output Graph:-

Connect the Arduino with PC through the Connecting Cable.Assemble the circuit as above Circuit Diagram.Download the Ultrasonic Radar by SKYuvraj.zip from above link.Extract it and find the .ino file and burn it on arduino with Arduino IDE.Download the Processing Software From Given link from Requirements.open it and open the prosesing.pde from the extracted folder.Now click on Run,(At left-top play Button)That’s it you will find the Output graph As Above image.

Also Read:-

More Images of Ultrasonic Radar:-

This is very easy project and i will modify it,Some modification you can try also-

  1. Add a Buzzer
  2. Add Led and Buzzer
  3. Add a LCD Display
  4.  Wireless Output using Wifi or Bluetooth Shield. 

I hope That After Reading and follow all the steps and guide you can make this Ultrasonic radar easily.Thank you for reading And Keep Visiting.Follow us on Andro Root’s Facebook Page  and if you have any confusion please use the comment section.

About Sourabh Kumar

Sourabh Kumar is a Tech savvy B.Tech(ECE) student living in Jaipur, India. He is a Blogger and fan of photography, technology, Robotics, and design. He is also interested in programming and innovation. He loves technology, gadgets and Spends lots of time with them.

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